Friday, 20 March 2015

Type 2 Diabetes - Myths & Facts [神话&事实关于第二类型糖尿病]

Type 2 Diabetes - Myths & Facts [神话&事实关于第二类型糖尿]
“Diabetes is caused by problems related to the hormone insulin, which helps turn blood sugar (glucose) into energy. With type 2 diabetes, a problem called insulin resistance happens when the body's cells can’t use insulin properly, and the pancreas makes an abundance to overcome the increase in blood glucose levels. When this happens, the pancreas can gradually lose its ability to make insulin; the increased amount of sugar in the blood can damage nerves and blood vessels. Chronically elevated blood sugars lead to such complications as heart disease, stroke, and kidney disease.”  Quoted from “WebMD”.
Diabetes myths have made it difficult for people to believe some of the hard facts – such as diabetes is a serious and potentially deadly disease. These myths can create a picture of diabetes that is not accurate and full of stereotypes and stigma.

1.        Eating Too Much Sugar Causes Type 2 Diabetes

Fact – Experts don't fully understand what causes type 2 diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, the body becomes resistant to insulin or doesn't produce enough insulin. Healthy eating—limiting fat, sugar, salt and cholesterol—is an important part of staying healthy for all adults. {My view – Eat healthy with regular exercise}
The American Diabetes Association recommends that people should avoid intake of sugar-sweetened beverages to help prevent diabetes. Sugar-sweetened beverages include beverages like:
·      regular soda
·      fruit punch
·      fruit drinks
·      energy drinks
·      sports drinks
·      sweet tea
·      other sugary drinks.
These will raise blood glucose and can provide several hundred calories in just one serving!
See for yourself:
·      Just one 12-ounce can of regular soda has about 150 calories and 40 grams of carbohydrate. This is the same amount of carbohydrate in 10 teaspoons of sugar!
·      One cup of fruit punch and other sugary fruit drinks have about 100 calories (or more) and 30 grams of carbohydrate.

2.        People with Type 2 Diabetes Can't Eat Sugar, Sweets or Starches

Fact – Glucoseor blood sugar—comes from carbohydrates. Starches, fruits, sugar, alcohol, and even grains contain carbohydrates or carbs. The key to eating carbs with type 2 diabetes is portion control. With proper portion control, no foods should be off limits. {My view – Work with a Dietitian to derive a “RIGHT” diet portion for you.  Even consume too much brown rice may spike your post meal glucose }

3.        Taking insulin means a person has failed

Fact – “This is a big myth,” says Jill Crandall, MD, Director of the Diabetes Clinical Trials Unit and co-director of the DRTC Clinical Research Facilitation Core at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, in the Bronx, N.Y. “Many people who try very hard to adhere to a diet, exercise, and lose weight will still need insulin.”
 “A large percentage of people with type 2 diabetes will ultimately need insulin, and we don’t see it as a failure,” she says.

4.        Insulin is inferior as compare to Oral medications

Fact – Oral diabetes medications can be great when it comes to lowering blood glucose levels. Many have been used for years and are very safe, such as “metformin
Still, not all oral medications work for everyone. "For some people, insulin is the easiest and best because it always works, but some people respond to pills, and others don’t," says Dr. Crandall.
Not all oral medications have a tried-and-true safety record. For example, Avandia was restricted by the FDA because of research suggesting that it ups the risk of heart attack. 
Personally I was taking Avandia during my dialysis days and I have to stop taking it after the FDA report.

5.        Multiple daily injections of insulin are required

Fact – There are many options such as the long-acting once-a-day insulin, twice a day or even taking a rapid reaction insulin before each meal.
Personally, taking 3 rapid reactions insulin before each meal as well as one long lasting insulin before bed times give me a much better control of my blood sugar.
If you have followed my earlier post, I am maintaining a very healthy control of blood sugar after my transplant.

6.        People with Type 2 Diabetes Don't Need Insulin

Fact – Many people manage type 2 diabetes with healthy eating, plenty of exercise, weight loss, and oral medicines. As the disease progresses, most people eventually need insulin. Starting insulin for type 2 diabetes does not mean you have failed to manage your disease. It means your disease is changing. Experts recognized this when they changed the name from "non-insulin dependent diabetes" to "type 2 diabetes."

7.        Only Overweight or Obese People Develop Type 2 Diabetes

Fact – Certain risk factors make it more likely for someone to develop type 2 diabetes. Being overweight or obese is one of them. But being overweight or obese doesn't necessarily mean someone will develop type 2 diabetes. That's because there are other risk factors which include having a family history of the disease and being over age 40. {My view – Eat healthy with regular exercise}

8.        Type 2 Diabetes Always Causes Symptoms

Fact – The telltale symptoms of type 2 diabetes are increased urination, thirst and hunger. Other symptoms include weight loss and fatigue; slow healing wounds and blurred vision typically occur later in the disease. {My earlier post, “Urine with Bubbles”, worth a read}.  Here is another article, “News Anchor Wakes Up to Diabetes” where she ignored all telltale symptoms of diabetes.

9.        Pre-diabetes Is Nothing to Worry About

Fact – You either have diabetes or you don't. Having pre-diabetes puts you at very high risk of developing type 2 diabetes. The good news is that you can do something about it. Research suggests that you can cut your risk by 58% if you lose 7% of your body weight and exercise moderately for 30 minutes a day, five days a week.

10.     Type 2 Diabetes Is Not As Serious As Type 1 Diabetes

Fact – Left uncontrolled, both types of diabetes can cause serious complications and even be deadly. Complications include kidney disease, vision loss, neuropathy, amputations, heart attack, and stroke. Fortunately, controlling and managing type 2 diabetes can help prevent or delay these complications.

11.     Type 2 Diabetes Can Be Cured

Fact – There is no cure for type 2 diabetes. The disease is controllable with lifestyle changes, oral medicines, and insulin. In some cases, people have been able to return their blood glucose levels to normal and stop their medicines. Doctors refer to this as remission instead of cure because the risk of relapse is very high. People have achieved remission through sustained weight loss, healthy eating, and making physical activity part of their daily routine

12.     People with Type 2 Diabetes Have to Eat a Special Diet

Fact – Eating diabetic or dietetic foods is not necessary. In fact, these foods may cause digestive problems and they are expensive. Instead, people with type 2 diabetes should eat a healthy diet. This includes limiting fat, cholesterol and salt. It also means eating fresh vegetables, fresh fruits, and whole grains.  {My view - A friend with renal failure admitted he has a high sodium diet which resulted in his systolic number at around 200}

13.     People with Type 2 Diabetes Can't Lead an Active Life

Fact – Leading an active life is vital to controlling type 2 diabetes. In fact, exercise can help your muscles take up and use glucose independent of insulin. Exercise also increases insulin sensitivity so your cells can use insulin better. People with type 2 diabetes should make exercise part of their daily routine. {Too much fat will reduce the sensitivity of insulin. My earlier post, “How Will a 15 Minutes of Walking Improve Quality of Life” worth a read}

14.     People with diabetes are more likely to get colds and other illnesses.

Fact – A diabetic is no more likely to get a cold or another illness as compare to others. For diabetic who do get the flu, it is more likely than others to go on to develop serious complications.  Prior to the transplant, I will get my flu shots yearly to minimize the risk.  It is not advisable to have flu shots within one year post transplant.

15.     It is fine to eat as much fruits as one wish since they are healthy.

Fact – Fruits contain fiber, vitamins and minerals. Certain fruits such as durian, mango and watermelons have high sugar contents. Personally, I avoid them.  It is advisable to talk to your dietitian for the types and amount of fruits suitable for you.

16.     Diabetes CANNOT eat rice

Fact – Personally, I consider this is the biggest myth of all.  In Asia, rice is considered a stable food and thus it is not feasible to forgo rice at all.  I take brown rice for my lunch and white rice occasionally.  Most important of all is Portion Control.  Even taking too much brown rice will spike one’s blood sugar.
Stables such as brown rice and rolled oats provide energy in one’s daily activities.  Diabetic requires carbohydrates after insulin injection to prevent Hypoglycaemias. If one is not taking any or minimum carbohydrates in a meal, he has to adjust the insulin dosage to prevent Hypoglycaemias.  Prolong Hypoglycaemias has negative effects on one’s heart.  Rice, noodles and bread should be included as part of a healthy and balanced diet
Let’s look at these facts and one can judge the seriousness of diabetes:
·      International Diabetes Federation (IDF) – 371 million people worldwide has been affected while 187 million of them do not even know they have the disease.
·      American Diabetes Association – In a report released in June 2014, 29.1 million Americans or 9.3% of the population had diabetes in 2012.  Approximately 1.25 million American children and adults have type 1 diabetes.
·      Diabetic Society of Singapore  – One out of 9 people aged 18 to 69 has diabetes. That’s about 11.3% of the population or more than 400,000 people!
Diabetes is a chronic disease and, if not managed well, can deteriorate steadily to cause devastating complications such as blindness, nerve damage, kidney failure, heart disease and limb amputation. Studies show that about half of patients already have diabetes-related complications at the time of diagnosis.  Let’s get active with a healthy diet to take control of your own life!
Other Relevant Posts for your Reading (您能其他相关的博):

·     Blood Test Report & Creatinine (验血报告&肌氨酸酐)

·     Difference between Glycosylated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) and Blood Glucose (葡基化的血红蛋白 (HbA1c) 和血糖之间的别)

Disclaimer: I am not a Medical Doctor. All my blog postings are based on my personal experience that I've went thru and what I've read up from the internet. If you've any symptoms of diabetes OR want to better manage your health, I strongly urge you to have regular medical-ups to avoid future complications. In addition, control your diet portions and have regular exercise.